The Trends of the Technology
for Full-integrated System based on Polysilicon and made on
Low Temperature Substrate
GM-IETR UMR-CNRS 6164, Université RENNES I,
35042 Rennes Cedex, France
The increasing interest in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems,
(MEMS), is mainly due to the great promise of providing new
functions and fully integrated systems. Many works were made
with success to integrate usual CMOS electronics based on single
crystalline silicon with polysilicon microstructures. However,
this integrated technology introduces severe limitations in
the process of the mechanical part to protect the electronics
from damage. Full compatibility between electronics and microstructure
processes is then welcome. This compatibility becomes hard to
meet when the sensing elements use low temperature materials
or are made on low temperature supports. The low temperature
requirement is not compatible with the process used in the standard
microelectronics technology. Thanks to more than 20 years hard
work made in the active matrix flat panel displays technology,
low temperature microelectronics processes based on polycrystalline
silicon are now available. Then, it can be possible to imagine
full-integrated system based on polysilicon and made on low
Here, we will present the low temperature (600°C) technology
on glass from a detailed description of the processes to make
thin film transistors and some micro-mechanical structures.
Then we will discuss on the problems and their possible solutions
to lower more the process temperature until it will be compatible
with the use of very low temperature substrates as flexible
plastics. The goal is to develop high performance devices made
at temperatures lower than 100°C.
Tayeb MOHAMMED-BRAHIM received the Doctorat dEtat
degree at the University of Paris XI, (France) in 1982, Associated-Professor
at the at the University of Rennes 1 (France), 1993-1995; Professor
of University at the University of Caen (France), since 1995-1999;
Professor of University at the University of Rennes 1 (France),
since 1999. The main research interest are: Polycrystalline
silicon devices for flat panel displays and photovoltaic applications
: structure deposition and realization; solid phase and laser
crystallizations; electrical and structural characterizations;
photovoltaic devices: fabrication, electrical and optical characterization;
thin film transistors: fabrication, electrical characterization,
ageing and reliability.
Grown-in and Process-Induced
Defects in Silicon à Nucleation, Growth Kinetics and Impact
on Electrical Device Properties.
IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Also at E.E. Dept., KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001
The crystal growth process may introduced different so-called
grown in defects such as point defects, swirld defects, dislocations
and Crystal Originated Particles (COPs). A first part outlines
the origin of these different defects in relation to the crystal
growth parameters, their detection techniques and the dependence
of their kinetics on the growth parameters.
Attention is given to present day state of the art materials
and the specifications put forward by the International Technology
Roadmap for Semiconductors. Beside the grown- in-defects, a
large spectrum of defect may be formed during the processing
of the silicon material for the fabrication of ULSI integrated
Advanced processing modules such as retrograde wells, isolation
schemes, junction formation and silicidation do impact the nucleation
and the growth behavior of the process-induced defects. Low
levels of metallic contamination are a pre-requisite for future
technology nodes. Finally, the electrical activity of the defects
and their impact on the device performance will be briefly addressed
Gettering techniques are available in order to avoid and/or
to eliminate these defects.
Cor Claeys was born in Antwerp, Belgium, in 1951. He obtained
his Elecrical Engineering Degree and his Ph.D. at the Catholic
University of Leuven, Belgium, respectively in 1974 and 1979.
He was staff member of the ESAT laboratory and later of IMEC.
Since 1990 he is Head of research group on Radiation Effects,
Cryogenic Electronics and Noise Studies, Responsible for Technology
Business Development and Professor in Material Science at the
Catholic University of Leuven. He is author and co-author of
more than 370 international publications, eight book chapters,
one monograph and more than 330 contributions at International
Conferences (of which 25 invited presentations since 1990).
Editor or co-editor of 20 Conference Proceedings Volumes. He
is member of several societies and committees, of which the
most important are : Vice-Chairman of the European Section of
the Electrochemical Society, Member of the Electrochemical Society
Honors and Awards Committee, Chairman of the Executive Committee
of the Electronics Division of the Electrochemical Society.
His main interests are in silicon processing, device physics,
low temperature electronics, radiation physics, submicron silicon
technologies, defect engineering, low frequency noise
FROM MICRO TO NANOTECHNOLOGIES:
WHERE MICRO MEETS AND NEEDS NANO?
EME/CEMIC, Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona.
C/ Martí i Franques,1.
Barcelona 08028. Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
From many years ago, Electronics has introduced two new concepts
that have completely modified the living style of our modern
society as well as the scientific and technologic idea of the
world: Miniaturization and integration.
In this scenario, during the last time, the monolithic integration
of processing, storage and analogue functions on semiconductor
materials, known as Microelectronics, has experimented a strong
evolution to include and combine, as a part of these miniaturized
systems, sensing and/or actuating functions. These multifunctional
systems, define as Microsystems, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
and/or Microrobotics, have nowadays extended the application
range of the Electronics to a new fields and have also open
new doors to multidisciplinary options such as the combination
of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
However, these disciplines are studying and controlling their
properties and scientific principles in the atomic range. So,
new advances in electronic materials are giving rise to new
options for material design and quantum effects. In parallel,
Biology is moving its actions from the cell biology to the functional
molecule design through the molecular biology and Chemistry,
is already working in the supramolecular field. All of them
are making nano-science and generating and claiming
These are not new words for smaller and smaller, just to point
out nano dimensions. Actually, nano inside for the
Electronics means the possibility to have and to control new
principles and mechanisms that offer new transducing
phenomena, which increase the functionality of our integrated
systems enhancing their miniaturization.
For this, it is necessary to build up structures or materials
in an atom-for atom specific way or to use molecular technology
in order to have some particular property. In the figure it
is shown, as example, well-defined palladium clusters on nano-sticks
of gas sensitive material for enhancing the gas detection.
In this presentation, we will refers to the term Micro@Nano
Technology as a set of integration technologies for further
miniaturization and adding functionality into micro and macro
applications using properties and functions found in the micro
and nano dimensions and structures. As a multidisciplinary competence,
which is mixing different scientific disciplines, we will discuss
about different physics, chemistry and biology approaches as
well as the requirements for mixing technologies and application
Examples will be used to provide that Micro@Nano technology
is a concept for more integration, more functionality, lower
cost and likely better products that in the next future will
give the possibility for having the integrated exploitation
of biological principles, physical laws and chemical properties.
As a main conclusion, nano-sciences and nano-technology are
new challenges for the integration and miniaturization in Electronics
moving Microsystem, Microelectronics, Molecular Technology and
Functional Materials to the idea of Nano-systems
Professor Dr J.R.Morante was born in Mataró (Spain).
At 1980 he received the Ph D degree in Physics from the University
of Barcelona. Since 1986 he is full professor of Electronics
and director of the Electronic Materials and Engineering, EME,
group. He has been dean of the
Physics Faculty and academic advisor of the Electronic Engineering
degree. He was director of the Electronics Department in the
University of Barcelona which is associated unity to the Centre
Nacional de Microelectronics at Bellaterra (Barcelona). Actually,
he is research head of the EME group and co-director of the
CEMIC, center of the Microsystems Engineering.
His activity is devoted to the electronic materials and technology,
physics and chemical sensors, actuators, and Microsystems. He
has especial interest in nanoscience and nanotechnologies.
He has collaborated in international R&D projects as BRITE,
microengineering, gas sensors...), ESPRIT, IST (advanced devices,
sensors, actuators, Microsystems, electronic systems,...), JOULE,...
and industrial projects.
He is co-author of more than 400 papers in international specialised
journal and member of international committees and editorial
boards in the field of electronic materials and technology,
sensors&actuators and Microsystems, and electronic systems.
He has distinguished with the research prize Narciso Monturiol
from the Generalitat of Catalunya (Spain).
Microfluidic Devices and
Dr. Eliphas Wagner Simões
Laboratório de Sistemas Integráveis, Universidade
de São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav. 3, n. 158, São Paulo
SP, Brazil, 05508-900,
This tutorial analyzes the design, construction and characterization
of microdevices and microsystems (characteristic dimensions
close to 20 - 1000 micrometers) applied to flows operating with
gases and liquids.
There is today a great deal of academic and industrial interest
in this field because of their technological applications in
areas as production, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineering,
as well as in biotechnology and bioengineering.
Also, we illustrated the interaction between several research
groups located in São Paulo State and other national
and overseas collaborators working with microflows and microfluidics
for at least five years. At this time, microchannels, microfluidic
devices, microsensors, microactuators and special fluidic microsystems
using conventional silicon micromachining technologies and new
material systems as LTCC technology were fabricated.
Eliphas Wagner Simões was born in São Paulo, Brazil,
in 1966. In 1990. Dr. Simões graduated in electrical
engineering from the Fundação Armando Alvares
Penteado (FAAP). He received his MS (1995) and Ph.D. (2000)
from the University of São Paulo. Since 1991 he has been
with the Laboratory of Integrated Systems (LSI), Department
of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnic School, University of
São Paulo. He has worked in the areas of microelectronics
processes, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidic devices,
and microfluidic simulations using different packages. Presently,
he is Pos- Doc associated with the Flow Laboratory (IPTSP).
He published more than 37 papers, mainly on microelectronics
processes and microfluidic devices, in different journals and
proceedings. His current interests are: microfluidic, simulations
packages, flow actuation and control, flow measurement, and
micromachining for different applications.