Porto Alegre, RS, BRAZIL, September 9-12, 2002
Canela, RS, BRAZIL, September 12-14,2002




The Trends of the Technology for Full-integrated System based on Polysilicon and made on Low Temperature Substrate
Tayeb Mohammed-Brahim
GM-IETR UMR-CNRS 6164, Université RENNES I,
35042 Rennes Cedex, France

The increasing interest in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, (MEMS), is mainly due to the great promise of providing new functions and fully integrated systems. Many works were made with success to integrate usual CMOS electronics based on single crystalline silicon with polysilicon microstructures. However, this integrated technology introduces severe limitations in the process of the mechanical part to protect the electronics from damage. Full compatibility between electronics and microstructure processes is then welcome. This compatibility becomes hard to meet when the sensing elements use low temperature materials or are made on low temperature supports. The low temperature requirement is not compatible with the process used in the standard microelectronics technology. Thanks to more than 20 years hard work made in the active matrix flat panel displays technology, low temperature microelectronics processes based on polycrystalline silicon are now available. Then, it can be possible to imagine full-integrated system based on polysilicon and made on low temperature substrate.
Here, we will present the low temperature (600°C) technology on glass from a detailed description of the processes to make thin film transistors and some micro-mechanical structures. Then we will discuss on the problems and their possible solutions to lower more the process temperature until it will be compatible with the use of very low temperature substrates as flexible plastics. The goal is to develop high performance devices made at temperatures lower than 100°C.

Short CV
Tayeb MOHAMMED-BRAHIM –received the Doctorat d’Etat degree at the University of Paris XI, (France) in 1982, Associated-Professor at the at the University of Rennes 1 (France), 1993-1995; Professor of University at the University of Caen (France), since 1995-1999; Professor of University at the University of Rennes 1 (France), since 1999. The main research interest are: Polycrystalline silicon devices for flat panel displays and photovoltaic applications : structure deposition and realization; solid phase and laser crystallizations; electrical and structural characterizations; photovoltaic devices: fabrication, electrical and optical characterization; thin film transistors: fabrication, electrical characterization, ageing and reliability.

Grown-in and Process-Induced Defects in Silicon Nucleation, Growth Kinetics and Impact on Electrical Device Properties.
Cor Claeys
IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Also at E.E. Dept., KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium

The crystal growth process may introduced different so-called grown in defects such as point defects, swirld defects, dislocations and Crystal Originated Particles (COPs). A first part outlines the origin of these different defects in relation to the crystal growth parameters, their detection techniques and the dependence of their kinetics on the growth parameters.
Attention is given to present day state of the art materials and the specifications put forward by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. Beside the grown- in-defects, a large spectrum of defect may be formed during the processing of the silicon material for the fabrication of ULSI integrated circuits.
Advanced processing modules such as retrograde wells, isolation schemes, junction formation and silicidation do impact the nucleation and the growth behavior of the process-induced defects. Low levels of metallic contamination are a pre-requisite for future technology nodes. Finally, the electrical activity of the defects and their impact on the device performance will be briefly addressed Gettering techniques are available in order to avoid and/or to eliminate these defects.

Short CV
Cor Claeys was born in Antwerp, Belgium, in 1951. He obtained his Elecrical Engineering Degree and his Ph.D. at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, respectively in 1974 and 1979. He was staff member of the ESAT laboratory and later of IMEC. Since 1990 he is Head of research group on Radiation Effects, Cryogenic Electronics and Noise Studies, Responsible for Technology Business Development and Professor in Material Science at the Catholic University of Leuven. He is author and co-author of more than 370 international publications, eight book chapters, one monograph and more than 330 contributions at International Conferences (of which 25 invited presentations since 1990). Editor or co-editor of 20 Conference Proceedings Volumes. He is member of several societies and committees, of which the most important are : Vice-Chairman of the European Section of the Electrochemical Society, Member of the Electrochemical Society Honors and Awards Committee, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Electronics Division of the Electrochemical Society. His main interests are in silicon processing, device physics, low temperature electronics, radiation physics, submicron silicon technologies, defect engineering, low frequency noise

EME/CEMIC, Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona. C/ Martí i Franques,1.
Barcelona 08028. Spain.

From many years ago, Electronics has introduced two new concepts that have completely modified the living style of our modern society as well as the scientific and technologic idea of the world: Miniaturization and integration.
In this scenario, during the last time, the monolithic integration of processing, storage and analogue functions on semiconductor materials, known as Microelectronics, has experimented a strong evolution to include and combine, as a part of these miniaturized systems, sensing and/or actuating functions. These multifunctional systems, define as Microsystems, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems and/or Microrobotics, have nowadays extended the application range of the Electronics to a new fields and have also open new doors to multidisciplinary options such as the combination of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
However, these disciplines are studying and controlling their properties and scientific principles in the atomic range. So, new advances in electronic materials are giving rise to new options for material design and quantum effects. In parallel, Biology is moving its actions from the cell biology to the functional molecule design through the molecular biology and Chemistry, is already working in the supramolecular field. All of them are making “nano-science” and generating and claiming new “nanotechnologies”.
These are not new words for smaller and smaller, just to point out nano dimensions. Actually, “nano inside” for the Electronics means the possibility to have and to control new principles and mechanisms that offer new “transducing” phenomena, which increase the functionality of our integrated systems enhancing their miniaturization.
For this, it is necessary to build up structures or materials in an atom-for atom specific way or to use molecular technology in order to have some particular property. In the figure it is shown, as example, well-defined palladium clusters on nano-sticks of gas sensitive material for enhancing the gas detection.
In this presentation, we will refers to the term Micro@Nano Technology as a set of integration technologies for further miniaturization and adding functionality into micro and macro applications using properties and functions found in the micro and nano dimensions and structures. As a multidisciplinary competence, which is mixing different scientific disciplines, we will discuss about different physics, chemistry and biology approaches as well as the requirements for mixing technologies and application developers.
Examples will be used to provide that Micro@Nano technology is a concept for more integration, more functionality, lower cost and likely better products that in the next future will give the possibility for having the integrated exploitation of biological principles, physical laws and chemical properties.
As a main conclusion, nano-sciences and nano-technology are new challenges for the integration and miniaturization in Electronics moving Microsystem, Microelectronics, Molecular Technology and Functional Materials to the idea of “Nano-systems” and “Nano-electronics”.

Short CV:
Professor Dr J.R.Morante was born in Mataró (Spain). At 1980 he received the Ph D degree in Physics from the University of Barcelona. Since 1986 he is full professor of Electronics and director of the Electronic Materials and Engineering, EME, group. He has been dean of the
Physics Faculty and academic advisor of the Electronic Engineering degree. He was director of the Electronics Department in the University of Barcelona which is associated unity to the Centre Nacional de Microelectronics at Bellaterra (Barcelona). Actually, he is research head of the EME group and co-director of the CEMIC, center of the Microsystems Engineering.
His activity is devoted to the electronic materials and technology, physics and chemical sensors, actuators, and Microsystems. He has especial interest in nanoscience and nanotechnologies.
He has collaborated in international R&D projects as BRITE, GROWTH (micromechanics,
microengineering, gas sensors...), ESPRIT, IST (advanced devices, sensors, actuators, Microsystems, electronic systems,...), JOULE,... and industrial projects.
He is co-author of more than 400 papers in international specialised journal and member of international committees and editorial boards in the field of electronic materials and technology, sensors&actuators and Microsystems, and electronic systems. He has distinguished with the research prize Narciso Monturiol from the Generalitat of Catalunya (Spain).

Microfluidic Devices and Microsystems
Dr. Eliphas Wagner Simões
Laboratório de Sistemas Integráveis, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav. 3, n. 158, São Paulo – SP, Brazil, 05508-900,

This tutorial analyzes the design, construction and characterization of microdevices and microsystems (characteristic dimensions close to 20 - 1000 micrometers) applied to flows operating with gases and liquids.
There is today a great deal of academic and industrial interest in this field because of their technological applications in areas as production, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineering, as well as in biotechnology and bioengineering.
Also, we illustrated the interaction between several research groups located in São Paulo State and other national and overseas collaborators working with microflows and microfluidics for at least five years. At this time, microchannels, microfluidic devices, microsensors, microactuators and special fluidic microsystems using conventional silicon micromachining technologies and new material systems as LTCC technology were fabricated.

Short CV
Eliphas Wagner Simões was born in São Paulo, Brazil, in 1966. In 1990. Dr. Simões graduated in electrical engineering from the Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado (FAAP). He received his MS (1995) and Ph.D. (2000) from the University of São Paulo. Since 1991 he has been with the Laboratory of Integrated Systems (LSI), Department of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo. He has worked in the areas of microelectronics processes, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidic devices, and microfluidic simulations using different packages. Presently, he is Pos- Doc associated with the Flow Laboratory (IPTSP). He published more than 37 papers, mainly on microelectronics processes and microfluidic devices, in different journals and proceedings. His current interests are: microfluidic, simulations packages, flow actuation and control, flow measurement, and micromachining for different applications.














Webmaster: Lucas Brusamarello